This is an archival version of the original KnowledgePoint website.

Interactive features have been disabled and some pages and links have been removed.

Visit the new KnowledgePoint website at


Revision history [back]

click to hide/show revision 1
initial version
Bruce W. Clemens gravatar image

This is an excellent answer for a large multilateral funded program. My experience lies on the ground in the field.

If you have financing you only need to feel comfortable that the local community is financially able to pay for O&M. However I respectfully believe that too much precious money is used for the types of assessments described. Unless you are interested in peer- reviewed publications OR in an urban area, don't waste your money. Potable water and sanitation will per se improve rural economy. Here are some self serving references😎:

Sauer, M. S Smith and B Clemens 2012 “Does it pay to invest in potable water in the developing world: Relationships between external financing and economic development in sustainable community-run integrated projects” Journal of International Development Article: first published online: 27 SEP: DOI: 10.1002/jid.2880

Clemens, B. and Tom Douglas 2012. “To what degree can potable water foster international economic development? What role does health play? Organization Management Journal. 9(2): 83-89. DOI:10.1080/15416518.2012.687988

Hajny, K. and B. Clemens. 2015. “Water and wealth: A Guatemalan case study, Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research. 16(2): 119-136

Chipman, C., V. Strait and B Clemens, 2014 “Who Cares About the Community? Agua del Pueblo as a case study for water-related non-profit work”: American Journal of Social Issues and Humanities 4(6): 319-334.